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Noggin Hoggin' Challenge Starting on Monday September 28, 2009

Here are the past questions which were used in this Noggin Hoggin' Challenge, along with the answers we accepted and an explanation.


Bonus Question (Head Start Clue)
The Canadian Flag we currently use was adopted in 1965. It was one of several designs considered. The Maple Leaf design was created by two gentlemen. One of these men received a Bachelor of Arts degree in what city?

Acceptable answers:
Edmonton, AB
Edmonton, Alberta

Until 1946, the "official" flag of Canada was the Royal Union Flag, or the Union Jack, still used by the United Kingdom today.

However, unofficially, the "Canadian Red Ensign" began to be used shortly after confederation, which depicted our ties to the United Kingdom, but asserted our independence by resigning the Union Jack to a corner of the flag, while also showing the coat of arms for Ontario, Québec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick (the first four provinces).

As more provinces joined Canada, their coats of arms were also added to the flag, though there was a lack of standardization. In 1921, King George V was asked to designate a coat of arms for Canada specifically, which was then adopted to the flag instead of the individual arms of the provinces.

This flag stayed essentially unchanged until 1965, other than a small modification in the color of the three maple leaves from green to red in 1957.

In the mid 1960s, there became more and more interest in adopting an "official" flag for Canada, "distinctively and unmistakably" Canadian. And as our heritage was not exclusively British, it was also thought best to remove any references to the United Kingdom.

Opinion on how best to do this lead to a very heated debate lasting more than 6 months. Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson strongly favoured a design of two blue borders representing the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, with three red maple leaves as found in our coat of arms.

The leader of the opposition, John Diefenbaker, strongly opposed any change to the flag at all, but eventually, after a great deal of political manoeuvring, a multi-party parliamentary commitee chose the following design by historian Colonel George Stanley. He had attended the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, to receive his Bachelor of Arts degree. Therefore, Edmonton is the city we were looking for to correctly answer this question.

In any case, within a month, the design was slightly modified by Jacques Saint-Cyr in simplifying the lower portion of the maple leaf to that in the flag we use today. On February 15, 1965, our flag was officially inaugurated at a ceremony on Parliament Hill.

As a final point of interest, it is thought by some that the final eleven-point design of the maple leaf on our flag may have actually been a copyright violation of a logo used by a downtown Ottawa craft store (Canada's Four Corners). It had been using a very similar design in its advertisements, notepaper, invitations, and Christmas cards since September 1963 and received a copyright on the logo shortly thereafter, all before the current Canadian flag had been accepted.

You be the judge.


Question for Monday September 28, 2009:
Some very famous people including Martin Luther King, Winston Churchill, and Marie Curie, have received a very special and well-known item engraved in Latin. The original dispenser of this item had a very constructive father. What modern day construction material did his or her father invent?

Acceptable answers:
modern plywood
rotary lathe
the rotary lathe

Martin Luther King received a Nobel Peace Prize, Winston Churchill a Nobel Prize in Literature, and Marie Curie a Nobel Prize in Physics and one in Chemistry as well (she was the first woman to win a Nobel prize, and the first person ever to win two Nobel prizes).

A portrait of Alfred Nobel (the founder of the Nobel prize) appears on the front of the medals. On the reverse side of the Nobel medal for Peace, the latin quotation Pro pace et fraternitate gentium "For the peace and brotherhood of men" appears. On the reverse side of the medals for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature, the quotation is Inventas vitam juvat excoluisse per artes "Inventions help life, which is improved by science". The medal for Economics does not have a latin incscription on the back.

In addition, the Nobel medals for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature have a location on the back side upon which the recipient's name is engraved. Winners of the Peace and Economics prizes have the recipient's names engraved on the edge of the medal.

In addition to creating the Nobel prize, Alfred Nobel is also known as the inventor of dynamite. However, the question asks for the construction material that his father invented.

Alfred Nobel's father was Immanuel Nobel, also an engineer and inventor. He experimented with nitroglycerin, but did not invent it (and later his son Alfred came up with a method of making nitroglycerin safer to handle, calling the resulting mixture "dynamite"). But Immanuel Nobel did invent the rotary lathe which is used in the manufacture of modern plywood.


Question for Tuesday September 29, 2009:

.-- .   .-- .. -.   .-- .... . -.   .-- .   .-- --- .-. -.-

.-- .. .-.. .-.. .. -. --. .-.. -.--

was first circulated in what year, and is an example of what type of literary device?

(Provide your answers in the order requested and separated only by one space.)

Acceptable answers:
1943 alliteration


The dots and dashes in the first part of this question are a message in Morse Code. First used in 1844, Morse Code consists of various long and short pulses to represent different letters and numbers, and was widely used to convey messages electronically around the world. The message itself translates to read "We win when we work willingly". This was a phrase embossed on the Canadian "Victory" nickel, released on January 1st, 1943 and minted until 1945.

Nickels are so named because they were once made of... nickel! In fact, the Canadian nickel was once unique in that it was made of pure nickel (99.9%), Canada having been the world's largest producer of this metal.

At the time of this particular coin's inception, nickel was in high demand for World War II munition making and shortages meant that sacrifices needed to be made. In an effort to redirect nickel and support the war effort, a new five-cent piece was minted of tombac (sometimes called Dutch metal), a type of brass alloy made from 88% copper and 12% zinc. Because of its colour (composition), the tarnished coin would resemble the one-cent piece (penny), but aside from this similarity, the new issue would be easily recognizable from other Canadian coins (including its predecessor) due to a number of distinguishing features.

This first Canadian, nonstandard, circulated coin was 12-sided and had its regular denticles (projection points) replaced by the good-luck war effort message, "We win when we work willingly", in Morse code around its rim. This phrase is a very clear example of an literary device known as alliteration, a special case of consonance, where a consonant sound is repeated at the beginning of a number of words that follow each other immediately, or very closely. Surprisingly, few Canadians actually realized that this dot and dash pattern had any special significance, merely believing it to be an interesting design feature.

The familiar beaver was replaced by the patriotic 'V' for 'Victory', a two-fingered salute made famous by British prime minister Winston Churchill, and a flaming torch representing life, hope, and sacrifice. The 'V' had a double meaning, as it is also the Roman numeral for the number '5', as in 'five-cents'. For this reason, some people claim that this five-cent piece holds the distinction of being the only coin ever to have used three different languages, namely English, Morse code, and Latin. However, whether Morse code is a language or not is debatable, as many consider it only as a way to code an existing language.

Although coin designs are traditionally engraved very large and then scaled-down using a pantograph, the Victory nickel was uniquely hand-engraved in miniature by the Chief Engraver of the Royal Canadian Mint, Thomas Shingles. Correspondingly, the design bears its creator's initials "T.S".

As the war progressed, the demand for copper also increased, so, from 1944 until the end of the Great War in 1945, the coin was minted from steel blanks plated with chrome and, in some cases, nickel. These coins tended to rust around the edges where the plating would split away from the blank.

Commemorative versions of the V-nickel design have been reissued to celebrate the 60th anniversary of D-Day in 2004, as well as VE-Day (Victory in Europe Day: May 8, 1945) and the Year of the Veteran in 2005.

Image copyright © 1995-2005, Bank of Canada


Question for Wednesday September 30, 2009:
We know that a lot of famous people have much in common as they tend to travel in the same circles. The following list of illustrious individuals all share one place in common that may not be so well known:

  • Washington Irving - Author of Rip Van Winkle
  • Walter Chrysler - Founder of the Chrysler Corporation
  • William Rockefeller - New York head of Standard Oil
  • Thomas J. Watson - Founder of IBM
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson - Famous Essayist and Author.

There is also a Canadian-born American business woman who has the same place in common with these individuals. She was once a Florence Nightingale, a nursing school drop out. She went on to be known by her business name, which was derived in part from a certain poem's hero. Who was this hero?

Acceptable answers:
Enoch Arden

What the individuals all have in common is that their grave sites are all in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, found in Sleepy Hollow, New York. Among the other famous individuals interred there, you would also find Elizabeth Arden, the founder of the well known cosmetics empire.

She was originally born Florence Nightingale Graham in 1878 in Woodbridge, Ontario. She started nursing school in Toronto, but dropped out to work with her brother in New York City. She started out there as a bookkeeper for the E. R. Squibb Pharmaceuticals Company, and used the position to her advantage by learning about skincare, which the company was involved in.

She formed a partnership with Elizabeth Hubbard, another employee, though the partnership didn't last. The business name "Elizabeth Arden" was created from a combination of her partner's first name and Alfred, Lord Tennyson's poem "Enoch Arden".

In the poem, Enoch Arden is the hero, a sailor who was shipwrecked and lost for ten years. Upon returning, he found that his wife had remarried his childhood friend. Unwilling to disrupt his wife's happy life, he never tells her he is still alive, and dies of a broken heart.

In her life, Florence Nightingale Graham went by the business name she created for herself - Elizabeth Arden. However, her gravestone in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery is inscribed with a combination of her business and personal names, reading Elizabeth N. Graham.


Question for Thursday October 1, 2009:
A few years ago, the Canadian media followed a curious national story about the theft and eventual return of an extremely unique pair of shoes, valued at more than $100,000. The culprit(s) eventually returned the stolen items by leaving them at what kind of establishment?

Acceptable answers:
a church


On January 22, 2006, between noon and 4:45 p.m., a pair of priceless, signature shoes were stolen from the Bata Shoe Museum in Toronto, Ontario. The 19th-century jewel-encrusted, rolled-toe, gold slippers were once worn by Nizam Sikandar Jah of Hyderabad, an Indian prince, to lavish royal affairs. The theft puzzled authorities as the value of these artifacts was in their historic significance and craftsmanship, not in the gold or gems themselves.

Then, on Feb. 7th, someone dropped a roll of film off for development which turned out to contain photos of the shoes at a dinner party where a couple of women could be seen trying them on in a Cinderella-like manner. The shop owner recognized the stolen items and planned a covert operation with his colleagues, ultimately capturing the suspect on film when he returned to pick up his photos.

Once the man left, the police were contacted and provided with copies of the photos showing the stolen goods, the two possible accomplices, and the prime suspect. The photos were released to the media and, before long, two panic-stricken ladies marched into the police station to reveal everything they knew about the men with the strange shoes at the party. They have since been cleared of any involvement with the theft.

Soon afterward, one of the men surrendered to police. Then a male, with a thick Slavic accent, called the museum to inform them that the shoes were to be found, unharmed, in a plastic bag at a church across the street. A second man was later arrested for his involvement in the shoe heist.

The three photo-lab workers shared a $25,000 reward for their hand in the cracking of this case and the safe return of the shoes.


Question for Friday October 2, 2009:
The ExamBank Noggin Hoggin' Gnome, Larry, was quietly living in the perennial gardens outside ExamBank's head office when he was kidnapped this past summer and taken on a worldwide adventure. The kidnappers would taunt the staff at the office with postcard clues as to Larry's whereabouts. Help solve these clues to discover Larry's current location.

Larry was last seen in the garden on June 25th. The first postcard arrived on July 11th with the note "There are over 60,000 signs here... I wonder where we'll be going next!" What year was this forest seeded with its first sign?

But do not enter that as your final response for this question, as you've just begun your quest; instead, use the year in the following web address:


Substitute the year for the blanks, and don't put any spaces in the web address. Then follow the instructions for the next step at the web page you will see. If you get a "Not Found" error, it means you haven't determined the right answer, so try again!

Once you have finished our gnome's journey, enter your response to the final question in the blank below.

Acceptable answers:
27000 km
27,000 km
27000 kilometres
27,000 kilometres

First, we need to find where this location is. Fortunately, that task is rather easy - as the "Sign Post Forest" is a well known location at Watson Lake, Yukon, and there are lots of resources on the Internet that talk about it. It all started in 1942, when Carl Lindley, a U. S. Army Engineer erected a sign to his hometown, reading "Danville, Illinois, 2835 miles". Since then, visitors have carried forward the idea at an incredible rate. Thousands more signs are being added by visitors to the Sign Post Forest every year.

In any case, the year it all began was in 1942, so the web address we first have to visit is:


At that web site, we will find the next clue:

The second postcard arrived on July 25th with a note scribbled on the back. "Ouch! That hurts!". Which local county is Larry pictured in? Do not include the word "County" in your answer.

The flag in the background will give you a helpful clue that this giant lobster statue is in Canada. And where better to find lobster than in the Maritimes! At one of the entrances to the town of Shediac, New Brunswick, you will find this massive tribute to a major part of their local economy.

Shediac is located in Westmorland County, so the next address to visit is:


The clue there is:

On August 15, this waterlogged postcard arrived. Written on the back was "The Guinness Book of World Records now considers us to be the largest!" In what country can Larry be found?

There are several ways of identifying where this photo was taken. Some may have realized that the picture looked somewhat like a massive swimming pool and so did a search for the largest swimming pool in the world. Others may have noticed the numbers on the bottom of the picture and realized they were a latitude and longitude identifying the location. In either case, you will end up at the San Alfonso del Mar resort in Algarrobo, Chile.

Covering an area of 8 hectares, this swimming pool is more than one kilometre long! The deep end is a whopping 35 metres deep, though the water is so clear you can see all the way to the bottom.

If you tried to use the latitude and longitude numbers at the bottom of the picture and didn't end up in Chile, you were probably in the wrong hemisphere. At the end of each string of numbers you will find the letters "S" and "O". These letters stand for "Sur" and "Oeste", the Spanish words for "South" and "West" respectively.

In any case, we now have the name of the country from which this postcard was sent, so our next address is:


There, you will find the clue:

On September 13, we received this postcard from Larry. It appears that he is back in Canada. Written on the back of the postcard is "Big Daddy!" Based on the information posted by the builder, how many metres tall does he claim this World Famous Gnome to be? Round to the nearest metre and do not include units.

Whether you used the name of the gnome provided in the postcard, or read its location (Nanoose Bay) on the sign in the photo, a search will turn up a bit of information on this great grandfather of Larry. He is said to be 29 feet tall, which is equivalent to 8.8 metres, rounding to 9 metres overall. The next address will then be:


In this case, even if you couldn't find the statue's height directly, you could still proceed to the next question by merely guessing. Since you can immediately see if you are right or wrong for each of the stages (other than the last) for this particular Noggin Hoggin' question, and we asked you to round to the nearest metre, there are only a handful of reasonable sizes he could be.

Our final clue from the resulting web page is:

Larry's adventure is almost over. Assume that Larry travelled by car on the most direct route from the ExamBank office to all the Canadian destinations he sent postcards from, in the order he visited them, but travelled by air to and from international destinations. Also assume that airports were located right next to the places he sent pictures from. Ending at the Big Daddy Gnome, how far did he travel in total, rounded to the nearest thousand kilometres?

Hopefully you kept track of all of Larry's travels up to this point, so you can retrace his footsteps!

On the first leg of his journey, he travelled from ExamBank's head office to Watson Lake, Yukon. If you're not sure where we're located, you can find contact information for us through a link at the top of nearly ExamBank page. We are located in the town of Legal, Alberta.

There are a lot of resources available online to calculate driving distances between two towns. One commonly used one is Google Maps. Google Maps reports the distance for this first leg to be 1,554 km. Note that if you use another resource, a slightly different route may be selected resulting in small variations in the calculated distance. But since we only are asking for the total distance accurate to the nearest thousand kilometres, these relatively small variations should not affect the answer in the end.

The next leg of Larry's travels bring him from Watson Lake, YT to Shediac, NB, a total driving distance of 6,140 km (this assumes a "northern" route through Ontario passing near Timmins and ending at Montreal - a more "commonly travelled" route passing through Sudbury and Ottawa on the way to Montreal comes in slightly longer at 6,232 km. Either number will still bring you to the same answer in the end.

Now, the next leg of the journey is to travel from Shediac, NB to Algarrobo, Chile - by air this time, since we are travelling to an international destination. Aircraft, not constrained by roads, generally fly "Great Circle" routes - literally the shortest distance between two points on the Earth's surface. Again, lots of resources on the Internet are available to calculate these distances - one such resource can be found at http://gc.kls2.com/.

To determine these distances, we will use the latitude and longitudes directly, since we were told to assume that airports were located right next to the places he sent pictures from. However if you picked "real" airports near those locations, you should still have obtained results similar enough to avoid affecting your final total distance when it is rounded.

Flying a Great Circle route from Shediac, NB (46°13'N 64°32'W) to Algarrobo, Chile (33°21'S 71°39'W), an online calculator would determine a distance of 8,841 km. Then flying from Algarrobo (33°21'S 71°39'W) to Nanoose Bay, BC (49°15'N 124°11 W) yields a distance of 10,521 km.

Adding all the distances together:

1554 + 6140 + 8841 + 10521 = 27056 km.

Rounded to the nearest thousand kilometres, the answer we are looking for in this question (at long last) is 27,000 km.


Question for Saturday October 3, 2009:
The Mountain That Walked and turned Old Man River into a lake.

The above enigma refers to a catastrophic event in Canadian history.

On what UTC date and time did this violent phenomenon occur, according to basic ISO 8601 format? (Do not include seconds, and don't forget to consider whether Daylight Saving Time would have applied at that particular moment in history.)

Acceptable answers:


"The Mountain That Walked" is a reference to Turtle Mountain in the Crowsnest Pass area of present-day Alberta. Generations of First Nations People referred to it in this manner and had carefully avoided settling in its shadow based on a Blackfoot legend that would prove to be eerie foreshadowing.

In 1900, entrepreneur Samuel Gebo explored the area around Turtle Mountain and selected it as the perfect location for a mining enterprise. In 1901, he and his business partner, Henry Frank, set up the Canadian-American Coal and Coke Company, with the latter as the major financier for the operation. The small town that began to take shape in the area below the mine was named after Mr. Frank and, by 1903, its population was well over 600 due entirely to the prosperity of the coal-mining business.

The excavation penetrated deep into Turtle Mountain's eastern slope and tremors began to occur with regular frequency. The miners didn't mind as it simplified their work, allowing them to merely scoop up and take away the coal deposits that were shaken loose from the mine's walls and ceilings. All that was about to change.

On April 29th, 1903, at 4:10 a.m., Turtle Mountain began to "walk". It is estimated that 182 000 000 000 000 kg (one hundred million tons) of limestone broke away and slid down, burying the town below and instantly damning the Old Man River to form a lake. It was over in 100 seconds. Of the 76 human lives lost, only the remains of 12 were ever uncovered. 40 were miraculously unearthed from their limestone entombment, thereby surviving the greatest landslide in North American recorded history.

ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time information calling for a big-endian (starting with the big end) notation, or from the most to least significant. This means that where date is concerned, one must record the year (YYYY), then the month (MM), and finally the day (DD), whereas for time, the order is hours (HH) based on the 24-hour clock, minutes (MM), and seconds (SS). Each value has a fixed number of digits and so leading zeros must be inserted as needed. A 'T' separates the date and time.

Now, there are two acceptable variations of ISO 8601. The basic format has no separators between the different date values (YYYYMMDDTHHMMSS), while the extended format allows for the use of hyphens (for date) and colons (for time) to improve legibility (YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS). This question specifically asked for basic ISO 8601 format, accurate to the minute.

In this particular case, you had to determine the UTC date and time (Coordinated Universal Time). UTC is a standardized time that is now derived from International Atomic Time (the weighted average of approximately 300 atomic clocks around the world) with the irregular addition of leap seconds to make up for the rotational slowing of the Earth and keep it close to mean solar time. It is used in many Internet, World Wide Web, and aviation applications. Although this may all seem quite complicated, all you need to understand is that there is a fixed, specific UTC for any moment in time, and that the world's various time zones are recorded as positive (later) or negative (earlier) departures from that UTC. In practical terms, UTC is essentially equivalent to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), which is more widely known, and is the time in England when Daylight Saving Time is not considered.

A brief discussion of the history and necessity of the world's time zones will be relevant here. Since the late 1600s, the "standard time" upon which the world's clocks are based has been referenced to that in Greenwich, England. There, they defined noon to be the average time throughout the year at which the Sun was at its highest point in the sky.

The difficulty is that since the Earth is round, it reaches the highest point in the sky at different times as you travel in an east-west direction around the globe. Specifically, since there are 360° of latitude and 24 hours (1440 minutes) in a day, for every latitude westward from Greenwich you travel, the Sun takes an additional 1440 ÷ 360 = 4 minutes to reach the highest point in the sky. So for every degree westward in longitude, the apparent time is 4 minutes earlier.

Historically, towns set their local time by this method, so that noon in every town had the same significance as it did in Greenwich. For example, Edmonton, Alberta, at 113.5° west longitude, would have a time 113.5 × 4 = 454 minutes, or 7 hours and 34 minutes earlier than Greenwich. Frank, Alberta, at 114.4° west longitude, would have a time 114.4 × 4 = 457.6 minutes, or 7 hours, 37 minutes, and 36 seconds earlier than Greenwich.

With the invention of the railway, however, some of the problems to this convention soon became apparent. Keeping trains on schedule when every local town was maintaining a slightly different time became a nightmare. From that, the concept of time zones arose.

Towards the end of the 1800s, American Charles Dowd and Canadian Sir Sandford Fleming independently proposed a worldwide system of time zones, where ideally the world would be divided into regions spanning 15 degrees of longitude in which everybody kept the same time. Adjacent regions would keep time exactly 15 × 4 = 60 minutes, or one hour different from each other.

By the end of the 19th century, virtually all towns where the railway played an important role (including the town of Frank) had adopted the convention of setting their clocks to a specific time zone. In the town of Frank, Alberta, the relevant time zone was called Mountain Time, defined as exactly 7 hours earlier than that in Greenwich. On September 1, 1906, Mountain Time was officially adopted within Alberta - before that, there really was no official time at all standardized throughout the province. But as Frank was a railroad town using Mountain Time earlier than it became official, the local time the residents observed the slide happened would have been in Mountain Time.

MT is 7 hours behind UTC during Mountain Standard Time (UTC-7), in winter, and 6 hours behind UTC during Mountain Daylight Time (UTC-6), in summer. Nowadays, April 29th falls within the MDT time frame, however, Daylight Saving Time would not have been relevant in 1903, as it wasn't used in Alberta until it passed in a provincial plebiscite at the 1971 general election. So, on April 3, 1903, Frank would have been 7 hours behind UTC. If it was 4:10 at UTC-7, then it would have been 7 hours later, or 11:10 in UTC.

A final consideration is the convention for identifying UTC time in ISO 8601 notation. UTC is often called Zulu time, a reference to the amateur radio word for the letter 'Z'. This is particularly applicable in the field of aviation, where Zulu is the universal standard. For this reason, if the time is specified in UTC, then this must be indicated by adding a 'Z' immediately following the time (without any spaces).

So, if we put all the above pieces together, we are looking for:



  • YYYY is 1903;
  • MM is 04;
  • DD is 29;
  • HH is 11;
  • and MM is 10.



Question for Sunday October 4, 2009:
Daphne just returned from a trip around the world and found the following collection of coins in the nooks and crannies of her suitcase:

At today's exchange rates, if she brought the money to her bank to deposit into her account, how many Canadian dollars would she receive? Express your answer rounded to the nearest $5, and assume that her bank does not charge a service fee.

Acceptable answers:

The task here is to separate the different coins into the separate countries they are from, use today's exchange rate to determine what the equivalent Canadian amount is, then add everything together. There are numerous resources on the Internet to determine current exchange rates.

Currency = Canadian Dollar
Exchange rate = 1.000
Value = 5 × 1.000 = $5.00 CAD

Currency = Euro
Exchange rate = 1.578
Value = 6 × 1.578 = $9.47 CAD

Currency = Japanese Yen
Exchange rate = 0.012
Value = 800 × 0.012 = $9.60 CAD

Currency = Australian Dollar
Exchange rate = 0.932
Value = 7 × 0.932 = $6.52 CAD

Currency = Swiss Franc
Exchange rate = 1.042
Value = 9 × 1.042 = $9.38 CAD

Currency = Swedish Krona
Exchange rate = 0.153
Value = 25 × 0.153 = $3.83 CAD

Currency = Egyptian Pound
Exchange rate = 0.197
Value = 2 × 0.197 = $0.39 CAD

Currency = Russian Rouble
Exchange rate = 0.036
Value = 15 × 0.036 = $0.54 CAD

Finally, totalling the Canadian equivalent values yields:


Rounded to the nearest $5, as asked, gives us the final response of $45.00

The exact exchange rates you obtained may vary slightly from ours depending on when they were obtained, and from which source. However, you should still end up at the same rounded answer. To check this, we looked at the history of exchange rates for each of the currencies over the past 3 months. If the lowest exchange rate in the past three months for each currency is used, the Canadian equivalent would be $42.66. Similarly, if the highest exchange rates are used, the Canadian equivalent would be $46.12. In either case, the answer still rounds to $45.00.